The terrain in Xiaogan City is higher in the northern part and lower in the southern part which, for the city is a transition part of Dabie Mountain, Tongbai Mountain and Jianghan Plain, makes it look like a slope and divide ten percent of the city into low mountains, 30% of the city into plains and 60% of the city into hills.

Xiaogan City lies in the north of Yangtze River and the south of Dabie Mountain and Tongbai Mountain. The city strides over two river basins-Yangtze River and Huaihe River, among which the coverage of Yangtze River basin is 8438.12 square kilometers and Huaihe River basin is 471.88 square kilometers. Being the watershed of the two river systems of Yangtze and Huaihe, Tongbai range and Dabie range reach out to the north separately from northwest to southeast and northeast to southwest. Generally, the terrain of the north is higher than that of south, with the Huaihe River basin in the city being higher in southwest and lower in northeast and Yangtze River basin in the city being higher in north and lower in south. The north part of the city is low-relief terrain. With the altitude of peak fluctuating between 400-800 meters, the highest peak is the Wuyue Mountain located in the junction of Hubei and Anhui Province which has an altitude of 880 meters, followed by the Shuangfengjian in Xiaochang, with its altitude being 873.7 meters. The central section of the city is hills with ground elevation being 50-150 meters. The southern part, being part of Jianghan Plain, is lake area whose ground elevation is less than 50 meters. The lowest spot of Xiaogan is Tongjia Lake in Xiaonan District which has the altitude of 17.5 meter. Mountainous Square is 1887 square kilometers which takes up 21% of the city. Hills have covered 3692 square kilometers, taking up 41% of Xiaogan’s national territorial area. Square of plain lake area is 3341 kilometers which is 37% of the national territorial area of Xiaogan.

With their altitude being 200-500 meters, mountainous regions of the north, mainly scattered in Dawu, Xiaochang and the north part of Anlu, are the southeastern extending ranges of Tongbai Mountain and northwestern extending ranges of Dabie Mountain. Low hills in the central section mainly scatter in Anlu, southern part of Xiaochang and Xiaonan, Yingcheng and the north of Yunmeng, and are the eastward extending low hills of Dahong Mountain; the branch of Tongbai mountain and the coccyx of Dabie mountain with the altitudegenerally 50-200 meters is the transition part between plain lake area and mountainous region.

Plain lake regions in the south, mainly in Hanchuan, Xiaonan, Yingcheng and the south of Yunmeng, are located in the northeastern corner of Jianghan Plain. Generally, altitude of those lakes is less than 50 meters, with rivers and lakes lying at intervals. There are more than 40 peaks in the city with the altitude being more than 500 meters. Rivers flow through the city is Hanshui, Yunshui, Huanshui and Hanbei River. Except the Zhugan river, which runs into the Huaihe River system northward, all rivers inflow into the Yangtze River system southeastward. Lake in the city is mainly located in the south. There were about 130 lakes of different scales at the beginning when new China was founded. After more than 50 years of schistosomiasis and snail control, lake enclosing and river regulation, there are many lakes with the inflow area being more than 100 square kilometers and the normal controlling water being more than 5 square kilometers, including Wangmu Lake, Yezhu Lake, Tongjia Lake, eastern and western Cha Lake, Longsai Lake, Laoguan Lake and Diaocha Lake . Normally, impounding area of those lakes is 137.28 kilometers, with the water storage being 159.91 million cubic meters. Other small lakes are mainly spread in Hanchuan. Vegetation in the city is mainly composed of forest and meadow. Up until 2005, area of forest land is 2.648 million mu and forest fraction of coverage is 20.4%. Gross area of natural pasture is 6.964 million mu, which takes up 39.8% of the national territorial area.